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1.Characteristics of the UN PKO(p40~)
     There are three characteristics 1) Agreement 2)Nonpartisanship 3)Restrain of the use of armed force
(1) Agreement(p41~)
      Agreement consist of ⅰ) core of agreement ⅱ) quality of agreement
      ⅰ) core of agreement
           Core of agreement classify  a) parties concerned conflict  b) core members of the UN 
               a) parties concerned conflict
                    ex. Legal government and Resistance
                         Somalia Conflict ( At least there are 8 parties and a lot of independent militia corps)
                       Question: Should the UN PKO obtain the agreement by which the parties involved?                                      
                                       Does the UN PKO have to obtain the agreement by all parties involved?
                b) core members of the UN
                    especially mean permanent members (of the Security Council)
                     ex. USA・・・1982,French plan was refused by USA. It asked the UN PKO to commit to                                                                                                                                                                                                                   .                                            observe withdrawal of PLO from Beirut.
                     Point: The UN PKO is highly depend on core members because they offer funds and unit.
                              That's why, no procurement exclude approval.
       ⅱ) quality of agreement
      Sincere agreement ←----------------→ Unreliable agreement                                            
             Parties concerned have strong desire                                                 By extortion or pressure.
             On a occasion that agreement is withdrawn or there are no agreement.                                                                                          .                (Parties concerned often agree because they think the UN PKO is profitable)                                                               .                The UN PKO act ・・・ 1) convert into semi-compulsory measure                                                                    .                                                    2) revise objective                                                                                           .                  .                                                    3) does not take action                                                                                               .                                                    4) Withdrawal
          1) means"Mission creep"・・・carry out their mission. (機能逸脱)Unintentional expansion of mandate  .           2) means"Missionクリンジ・・・ limit their mission.(機能萎縮)Unintentional shrink of mandate.
(2) Nonpartisanship(p48~)
   Nonpartisanship and objectivity distinguish the UN PKO from 強制行動 (forced action or PKO?)
      強制行動・・・Parties involved are classified by the side of casualty or the side of international criminals.   .      The UN PKO・・・ They neither blame only one side nor sympathetic towards only one side.
      Point: Nonpartisanship are always in crisis!!                                                                                                      .                ⅰ) Sould we form a  judgment from the which way? Should we maintain nonpartisan absolutely?    .                ⅱ)Even if the UN PKO is neutrality, how parties concerned who suffer disadvantages think it                    .                     because usually the UN PKO give rise to changes in power balance.                                                     .                ⅲ) How's a sense of values whose parties concerned ? Even if it supports to refugee camps,                  .                      there are possibility to be seen a contribution for their enemy.
      If the UN PKO lose their nonpartisanship・・・                                                .            They assume a risk to be seen enemy for some parties concerned.     
.               ex. Air raid to Serbian in Bosunia , approval of the caretaker president for one side in Somalia.
.        A dilemma of partisanship(Neutrality or Reliability)                                                                                    .            ex. Experience in Somalia .                                                                                                                       .                  The UN PKO approve アリ・マハディ for the caretaker president → Retaliate from General         .         .                  アイディード  → They became to aim to capture General (means a failure of Peace Keeping)    .     .                 However, if the UN PKO had not aimed to capture General, he would have seemed them  . .            .                 as week-kneed,and added harder retaliate attack to collapse a peace process.
(3) Restrain of the use of armed force(p53~)
         Interpretation ⅰ) the minimum necessary use of armed force.                                                                                                 .                               ⅱ)  within the ambit of their self-defense Criteria of restrain of the use of armed force.      .                                       has an influence on a principle of agreement and nonpartisanship .
       On the case that UN PKO could obtain agreement and cooperation from parties  concerned,       .        . .  .        criteria was not important at all. However, on the case that UN PKO could not obtain agreement and      .        cooperation from parties concerned, criteria was important.
       Why? : Because the UN PKO are expected to exclude interference with their mission. However it  .              .                    means that provoke critical parties antipathy , and that's why the UN PKO face a dilemma .                                                         .                    of risk or reliability.
                 Flexible restrain →Increase the risk and possibility to be a part of conflict in themselves.
                 Strict restrain    →Decrease their reliability for observer of a peace process.                                                           .                                                    ex. "patient diplomacy"in Cambodia.